White crystalline powder that can be snorted, injected or smoked
Health Effects
Acute Dilated pupils; increased body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure; nausea; increased energy, alertness; euphoria; decreased appetite and sleep.

High doses: Erratic and violent behavior, panic attacks

Long-term Addiction, restlessness, anxiety, irritability, paranoia, panic attacks, mood disturbances; insomnia; nasal damage and difficulty swallowing from snorting; GI problems; HIV
In combination with alcohol When combined, there is a greater risk of overdose and sudden death than either drug alone.
Withdrawal symptoms Depression, fatigue, increased appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, vivid unpleasant dreams, psychomotor retardation or agitation
Associated Special Vulnerabilities/Populations
Pregnancy Premature delivery, low birth weights, and smaller for gestational age.
Treatment options
Medications There are no FDA-approved medications to treat cocaine addiction.
Behavioral Therapies
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
  • Community reinforcement approach plus vouchers
  • Contingency management, or motivational incentives The matrix model
  • 12-Step facilitation therapy

(For more information on these treatments, please see NIDA’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide – Behavioral Therapies.)

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