|Greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and/or flowers of Cannabis sativa or cannabis indica—the hemp plant|
|Acute||Heightened sensory perception; euphoria, followed by drowsiness/relaxation; impaired short-term memory, attention, judgment, coordination and balance; increased heart rate; increased appetite|
|Long-term||Addiction: About 9 percent of users; about 1 in 6 of those who started using in their teens; 25 to 50 % of daily users. Mental disorders: may be a causal factor in schizophreniform disorders (in those with a pre-existing vulnerability); is associated with depression and anxiety.
Smoking related: chronic cough; bronchitis; lung and upper airway cancers is undetermined.
|In combination with alcohol||Magnified tachychardia and effect on blood pressure; amplified impairment of cognitive, psychomotor, and driving performance|
|Withdrawal symptoms||Irritability, difficulty sleeping, strange nightmares, craving, and anxiety.|
|Associated Special Vulnerabilities/Populations|
|Youth||Almost 44 percent of teens have tried marijuana by the time they graduate from high school (MTF, 2010)|
|Medications||There are no FDA-approved medications to treat marijuana addiction.|
(For more information on these treatments, please see NIDA’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide – Behavioral Therapies.)